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D-H Communications & Marketing Style Guide

The following document is a style guide to assist in the production, implementation, and continuing development of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Communications and Marketing publications, print collateral, and web content. This document outlines naming conventions, copyediting, styles, and resources. To ensure continuity and maintain the life span of this site, it is important that everybody involved in the development, maintenance, and updating of this site read, understand, and adhere to these guidelines.

For branding guidelines, refer to the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Brand Guidelines website.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Copyediting

Communications and Marketing at Dartmouth-Hitchcock uses the Associated Press Stylebook as a basis on how refer to elements and other copyediting rules that may apply, except for particularities and deviations noted below.

Other sources are the following:


A

abbreviations and initialisms

  • With all-cap abbreviations, DO NOT use periods, except in press releases. For example, academic degrees (MD, PhD); however, for state names use the state abbreviations that are listed in the AP Stylebook.
  • Plurals: do not use apostrophe and "s" unless it is possessive. Just use "s." For example, "two MRIs" and "three MDs."

Some common abbreviations used at Dartmouth-Hitchcock are:

  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Concord, Manchester, or Nashua: Spell out in full if possible. If necessary, abbreviate as: "D-H Concord"
  • Norris Cotton Cancer Center: "the Cancer Center," not NCCC
  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) should be used only when talking about the location. All other references, use "Dartmouth-Hitchcock" or "D-H." For example: "D-H Finance experts" and "This event will take place at DHMC."

academic degrees

Do not use periods between abbreviations. For example, MD, PhD, etc., except in press releases. If you list the degree, leave out the title. For example, Dr. Morris Levin vs. Morris Levin, MD. For all other guidelines, follow the "academic degrees" section in the AP Stylebook.


acronyms

If the acronym is not a common acronym that a user may know, provide the definition first, and then the acronym in parentheses. Thereafter, you can use just the acronym throughout the document or web page. The parenthetical term is extra information, so the term mentioned first should be the one that's more familiar or understandable to your readers.

When the acronym is a common term or product name, display the acronym first, and then the full definition in parentheses.

For example:

BOTOX (Botulinum Toxin Type A)
The phenomenon known as ESP (extrasensory perception) is rare.
The phenomenon known as regulatory blast piping (RBP) is common.


am

Do not use periods for am and pm. See also Time.


ampersand

Use only in abbreviations (AT&T) or names of publications that use it (U.S.News & World Report).


attending

Okay shorthand for "attending physician."


B

birth weights (weights in general)

AP Stylebook:

Use figures: The baby weighed 9 pounds, 7 ounces. She had a 9-pound, 7-ounce boy.


Blue Cross and Blue Shield

Like that—no ampersand, spelled out.


board certified

If it's being used as an adjective, hyphenate the words; otherwise, it isn't hyphenated.

For example:

"Look for board-certified allergists." vs. "Ask whether your doctor is board certified and can provide references."


Board of Overseers, the

Boards of Trustees, the

Dartmouth-Hitchcock has two major, yet separate, corporate components: Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital (MHMH) and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Clinic (DHC).

The D-H Boards of Trustees are the governing body of elected members who direct the policies of D-H. The Boards oversee the $1.2 billion enterprise and its more than 9,000 employees. Approximately 80 percent of elected members serve as Trustees for both corporations, with the remaining 20 percent of Board members serving for either MHMH or DHC.

MHMH and DHC operate as D-H under a formal partnership agreement, with the Boards meeting and functioning as one cohesive unit.

The Boards have three equally important sets of responsibilities:

  • Providing fiduciary oversight of Dartmouth-Hitchcock's assets, ensuring compliance and monitoring performance
  • Working with leadership to determine Dartmouth-Hitchcock's mission, vision and strategic priorities
  • Working with leadership to discern and define the issues that matter most to Dartmouth-Hitchcock's long-term success

Additionally, all D-H Trustees are members of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Assembly of Overseers—a 400 member body consisting of D-H advisors, ambassadors and advocates.


bulleted lists

  • Always capitalize the first word of a bulleted list.
  • If there is no natural or logical ordering for the content, use ascending or alphabetical ordering—for example, 0_9 or A_Z. Order the entries in a list to best represent the content and to facilitate easy browsing by the user. For example, you would typically alphabetize a list of names, but put a list of dates in chronological order.
  • Use a period at the end of a bulleted-list item only if the item forms a complete sentence and is not a sentence fragment. If the bullet points form complete sentences, add a period at the end of a fragment.

For example:

If you use an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV), you can avoid injury by:

  • Wearing a helmet
  • Not operating the vehicle while intoxicated
  • Never driving on a public roadway

If you use an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV):

  • Always wear a helmet.
  • Don't operate the vehicle while intoxicated.
  • Never drive on a public roadway.

C

capitalization

  • The name of a website section is always capitalized: Diabetes Program, Hernia Surgery Center
  • Section and department names are capitalized: Endocrinology Department, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
  • The title of a web page within a section is always capitalized: Diagnostic Tests & Procedures, Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy
  • Capitalize both words of a hyphenated title: Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy
  • Subheads within an individual page use sentence case, with no periods at the end: Prenatal care by trimester

cesarean section, C-section


CHaD

Children's Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock (CHaD). Always spell in full before using CHaD. Do not put "the" before Children's Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock (CHaD).


classes

the Class of '80 (but "the class is...")
John Jones '50... (DMS grad, in a context where that's clear)
John Jones, DMS '50,... (DMS grad, in a context where that's not clear)
Jane Jones, DC '78 and DMS '82,...
Jane Jones, MD, '80... (if both degree and class are appropriate)
Jim Jones, PhD, '92... (always with degree, to make clear it's not an MD alum; "Jim Jones, PhD '92,..." might be more appropriate in some contexts, with the degree attached to the year rather than being used as a degree)
Sarah Smith, HS '84-87, (housestaff dates are always expressed as a span)


colons

Always use a colon when introducing a bulleted list, after a full sentence or fragment.

For example:

Correct: There are four ways to commit material to a job:
Incorrect: The methods for committing material include


comma use in a series

Follow the AP Stylebook: Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series.

For example:

The flag is red, white and blue.
He would nominate Tom, Dick or Harry.

Put a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series, if an integral element of the series requires a conjunction.

For example:

I had orange juice, toast, and ham and eggs for breakfast.

Use a comma also before the concluding conjunction in a complex series of phrases.

For example:

The main points to consider are whether the athletes are skillful enough to compete, whether they have the stamina to endure the training, and whether they have the proper mental attitude.


Community Group Practices (CGP)

Refers to D-H clinics in Manchester, Nashua, Concord, and Keene, and to D-H Putnam Physicians.


composition titles

Use italics for titles and subtitles of published books, pamphlets, proceedings and collections, periodicals, and newspapers and sections of newspapers published separately (New York Times Book Review) when they are mentioned in the text or notes. Such titles issued in microfilm are also italicized.


copyright guidelines

Copyright is a form of protection grounded in the U.S. Constitution and granted by law for original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright covers both published and unpublished works. For more information about Copyright laws, refer to the U.S. Copyright Office website.

If anyone requests to use or post works from another author or company, we must first get permission from the copyright owner (in writing or by email) to use the content. For websites, if copyright permission is not granted, provide a link to the information if it is available to an outside website.

If you know who the copyright owner is, you may contact the owner directly. If you are not certain about the ownership or have other related questions, you can request the Copyright Office to conduct a search of its records or you may search yourself on the Copyright Office's Search section of their website.

Only the owner of copyright in a work has the right to prepare, or to authorize someone else to create, a new version of that work. Accordingly, you cannot claim copyright to another's work, no matter how much you change it, unless you have the owner's consent.

Music Used in Videos

If someone requests to post a video that wasn't produced by our Video Services team, make sure we have written permission to use an artist's music that is used in the video. The general rule of thumb is, if you use work that does not belong to you, you need to seek permission. If not, you are putting yourself in a position to be sued. The owner of the work has the exclusive right to determine how their work is being used, duplicated, and distributed. Otherwise, you can contact the Video Services team to see if they can replace the music with something from their library of purchased music that's approved for use.


course names

Capitalize if it's used as a formal title, lower-case if it's used descriptively. For example, He's taught Physical Diagnosis since 1988. vs. He's a great physical diagnosis teacher.


D

Dartmouth College

  • Dartmouth College – never DC as an initialism, unless you are referring to a student or a graduate's class year ("He is a DC '36 and a DMS '37"; "Sarah Smith, DC "09").
  • You can also refer to the College - using a capitalized C.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock

  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (hyphen between Dartmouth and Hitchcock)
  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock (D-H)
  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Clinic: do NOT use "the" ("She works at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Clinic," not "She works at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Clinic.") Do not use DHC.
  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC). "The" is not used with the full name or initialism, but it is used with "the Medical Center"

Dartmouth Medical School

Do not use. See Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth.


dates

AP Stylebook:

Always use Arabic figures, without st, nd, rd, or th. See months for examples.


dates (span of)

  • Use "from March to June" for a span of months
  • Use "1998-99" for a single academic year but "from 1997 to 1999" for any other span of years ("through" may also be used in any of these formulations instead of "to")

day care (n.), day-care (adj.)


decades

AP Stylebook:

  • Use Arabic figures to indicate decades of history.
  • Use an apostrophe to indicate numerals that are left out.
  • Show plural by adding the letter s: the 1890s, the '90s, the Gay '90s, the 1920s, the mid-1930s

decision-making (n. and adj.)


departments, sections, and programs

As a formal title – that is, in "Department of ..." form:

  • Department of Physiology ("the department" on later reference)
  • As a descriptive term—that is, in "physiology department" form: physiology department ("the department" on later reference)

Similarly with sections:

  • Section of Oncology ("the section" on later reference)
  • oncology section ("the section" on later reference)

But with programs the formal title is usually in "Such and Such Program" form:

  • Molecular Genetics Program ("the program" on later reference)
  • program in molecular genetics ("the program" on later reference)

Note: Departments have chairs, sections have chiefs, and programs usually have directors. But "head" (always lower-cased) is an appropriate replacement, as either a noun or a verb, for any such position.


disciplines (or specialties)

Lowercase unless it's part of a proper noun.

For example:

"She practices plastic surgery." and "He finished his internal medicine residency." and "His wife teaches history."

but

"She's chair of the Department of Internal Medicine." and "He is a member of the American Board of Internal Medicine."


doctor-patient Relationship


E

Electronic Health Record (EHR) - [no longer referred to as EMR (Electronic Medical Record)]


email [one word without the hyphen]


em-dashes

The em dash has several uses. It allows, in a manner similar to parentheses, an additional thought to be added within a sentence by sort of breaking away from that sentence—as I've done here. Its use or misuse for this purpose is a matter of taste, and subject to the effect on the writer's or reader's "ear." Em dashes also substitute for something missing. For example, in a bibliographic list, rather than repeating the same author over and over again, three consecutive em dashes (also known as a 3-em dash) stand in for the author's name. In interrupted speech, one or two em dashes may be used: "I wasn't trying to imply—" "Then just what were you trying to do?"

Within a sentence, use an em-dash without spaces on either side of the dash.

For example:

If you feel pain—such as in the neck or head—notify your physician immediately.


en-dashes

The en dash connects things that are related to each other by distance, as in the May–September issue of a magazine; it's not a May-September issue, because June, July, and August are also ostensibly included in this range. And in fact en dashes specify any kind of range, which is why they properly appear in indexes when a range of pages is cited (e.g., 147–48). En dashes are also used to connect a prefix to a proper open compound: for example, pre–World War II. In that example, "pre" is connected to the open compound "World War II" and therefore has to do a little extra work (to bridge the space between the two words it modifies—space that cannot be besmirched by hyphens because "World War II" is a proper noun). Now, that is a rather fussy use of the en dash that many people (justifiably, I suppose) ignore, preferring the hyphen —Chicago Manual of Style


F

Family Medicine (formerly known as Community Health Center). [Not Heater Road or Family Practice.]


fiscal year

FY '07


G

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth

"Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth" ("Geisel" or "the Medical School"). "The" is not used with the full name or initialism. (i.e., "She attends Geisel School of Medicine," not "She attends the Geisel School of Medicine." "He is a graduate of Geisel School of Medicine," not "He is a graduate of the Geisel School of Medicine.")


H

he or she

To avoid sexist language, many writers use the he or she alternative phrasing (in place of the generic he). Use it sparingly—preferably after exhausting all less obtrusive methods of achieving gender neutrality. But he or she is preferable to he/she, s/he, (s)he, and the like. See also section They vs. he or she.


headings

  • Book-title capitalize the main heading for the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. Do not capitalize articles (or words of fewer than four letters) unless it is the first or last word in a title.
  • Sentence-style capitalize sub-headings on a page below the main heading.
  • Do not use all-capitalization.

healthcare vs. health care

According to the Associated Press Stylebook, health care should be spelled out as two words, no hyphen, in all uses. (An exception to Webster's first listing).


house staff


hyphen (-)

Hyphens are joiners. Use them to avoid ambiguity or to form a single idea from two or more words. For more details, refer to the "hyphen" section in the Punctuation Guide section of the AP Stylebook.

Do not use double hyphens ( -- ) to separate sentences. Use an em-dash. Do not leave a space between the em-dash and the words. See also Em-dashes.


I

in box


in utero, in vitro, in vivo


inpatient (and outpatient)


Internet (capitalized)


Intranet (capitalized)


italic

Use for titles and subtitles of published books, pamphlets, proceedings and collections, periodicals, and newspapers and sections of newspapers published separately (New York Times Book Review) when they are mentioned in the text or notes. See also Composition Titles.


L

lieutenant (j.g.)

Lowercase, use periods.


lifelong, lifetime, lifestyle


like

Okay when "such as," but not "as" or "as if," can substitute for it.


long-term, but longtime


M

Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital (MHMH)

Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital (MHMH) is a legal entity only; the name is no longer used for marketing or communications purposes. When the hospital moved in 1991 from its original Hanover, New Hampshire location to the current site in Lebanon, New Hampshire, it was rebranded Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, which is comprised of the hospital, all affiliated clinics, and Geisel School of Medicine. The Children's Hospital of Dartmouth (CHaD) and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center are also considered part of Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, but have been allowed to have their own brand names.


medical center, the

Lowercase, not "the Medical Center."


months

AP Stylebook:

  • Capitalize the names of months in all uses.
  • When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate only Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Spell out when using alone, or with a year alone.
  • When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with commas. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with commas.

    For example:

    January 1972 was a cold month.
    Jan. 2 was the coldest day of the month.
    His birthday is May 8.
    Feb. 14. 1987, was the target date.
    She testified that it was Friday, Dec. 3, when the accident occurred
    .

In tabular material, use these three-letter forms without a period: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

See dates and years.


multispecialty


myD-H

Lowercase "my," no space before the "D-H." NOT "MyD-H."


N

names and titles

Avoid middle initials, except:

  • in bylines and in signature lines on letters
  • to distinguish among people with the same first and last names (Ronald M. Green at the Ethics Institute and Ronald L. Green in psychiatry)
  • in first references to people who use their middle name only (S. Marsh Tenney)
  • in donor lists
  • in references to widely known individuals whose names are always rendered with a middle initial (or full middle name)

With two initials in a name, there should be no space between them ("S.B. Lee").

Avoid "Jr.," "Sr.," "III," etc., except:

  • in bylines and in signature lines on letters
  • to distinguish among people who might be confused with each other
  • in donor lists
  • in references to widely known individuals whose names are always rendered with such a designation

Use a comma to set off (on both sides) Jr. or Sr. and degrees, but not II or III:

  • John Jones, Jr., MD, PhD, is... (or "John Jones, Jr., is...")
  • John Jones III, MD, is... (or "John Jones IV is...")

Use quotation marks for nicknames ("...John "Chip" Smith...").

Use parentheses for maiden names ("...Mary (Smith) Jones...").

Lower-case a title after a name:

  • Sarah Smith, a professor of physiology, is a...
  • James Smith, a professor of physiology emeritus, is a...
  • John Jones, dean of DMS, is...

Capitalize a full title when it comes before and is an integral part of a name:

  • Dean John Jones is...
  • Professor of Physiology Sarah Smith is a... (but "physiology professor Sarah Smith," because that's a descriptive term rather than a full title)
  • Lieutenant Smith is... (but "Smith is a lieutenant")

Capitalize an endowed chair title, whether it comes before or after a name (because a proper name is part of it, so the whole title is capped to be consistent):

  • The new Vail Professor of Physiology will be named next week...
  • Heinz Valtin, the Andrew C. Vail Professor of Physiology Emeritus, is a...

In short, titles are capped when a formal title (rather than a descriptive form of it) immediately precedes the name and are lower case following a name or standing alone.


names and titles of physicians

First mention, one doctor:

  • Greg McFetridge, MD
  • Raul Bannerjee, PhD

Second mention, one doctor:

  • Dr. McFetridge
  • Dr. Bannerjee

Second mention, more than one doctor:

  • Drs. McFetridge and Bannerjee
  • Drs. McFetridge, Bannerjee and Cole

Third mention for one doctor, first mention for another:

  • Dr. McFetridge and Audrey Cole, MD, PhD

NEAH (New England Alliance for Health)

Do not use "the" before NEAH.


Norris Cotton Cancer Center

  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center [DO NOT use NCCC or "The"]
  • Norris Cotton Cancer Center [If Dartmouth-Hitchcock branding is already around it.]
  • the Cancer Center [NOT "the Center"]

and:

  • Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center Manchester
  • Norris Cotton Cancer Center Manchester [If Dartmouth-Hitchcock branding is already around it.]
  • Notre Dame Pavilion at Catholic Medical Center [When you include the address for location; however, this should not be part of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center name.]

North Country


Northern New England

  • Capitalize "Northern" when referring to it as a region.
  • In general, lowercase north, south, northeast, northern, etc., when they indicate compass direction; capitalize these words when they designate regions.
  • In forming proper names: When combining with another common noun to form the name for a region or location: the North Woods, the South Pole, the Far East, the Middle East, the West Coast (the entire region, not the coastline itself), the Eastern Shore (see separate entry), the Western Hemisphere.
  • For more details, see "directions and regions" in the AP Stylebook.

numerals

Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above. Refer to AP Stylebook for all other uses.


O

OB-GYN (but OB alone)


online


orthopaedics


outpatient (and inpatient)


P

pm

Do not use periods for am and pm. See also Time.


part-time

(adj.); part time (noun).


Patient Online

Capital "P" and "O." Keene only. See myD-H for all other locations.


payers, payors

Payers (to define) and payors (in the insurance sense).


percent, %

Percent in a single reference or a more literary context.

% (with multiple references in a single story or in a more statistical context).


periods

  • With all-cap abbreviations, DO NOT use periods, except in press releases. For example, academic degrees (MD, PhD); however, for state names use the state abbreviations that are listed in the AP Stylebook.
  • Do not use periods for am and pm. See also Time.
  • Use a period at the end of a bulleted-list item only if the item forms a complete sentence.
  • Do not use periods at the end of a bulleted-list item if the item is a sentence fragment; however, if the bullet points form complete sentences, add a period at the end of the fragment.
  • Subheads within an individual page use sentence case, with no periods at the end: Prenatal care by trimester
  • Do not include ending periods or commas within links.
  • In tabular material, use these three-letter forms without a period: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
  • Use a single space after a period at the end of a sentence. AP Stylebook

phone numbers

(603) 650-5000


policy-making (n. and adj.)


postcard


postdoctoral, postdoc


postoperative, preoperative


premedical, premed


press releases

  • Press time, not presstime
  • Book-title capitalize the main heading for the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. Do not capitalize articles (or words of fewer than four letters) unless it is the first or last word in a title.
  • Headings must be no more than 70 characters (including spaces).
  • Sentence-style capitalize sub-headings on a page below the main heading.
  • Do not use all-capitalization.

primary care provider

Do not use the term PCP without first defining primary care provider. Refer to a primary care provider first as a family doctor.

For example: "The service is for adults and children who do not have a family doctor (primary care provider, or PCP) and need one."


Public Health Service

Always cap.


Q

quotes

Refer to the "quotation marks" section in the AP Stylebook.


S

Seacoast region (of N.H.)


seasons

Lower case unless the reference is to the date of a publication ("The fall foliage is beautiful" but "The Fall issue has a feature on cardiology.").


sizable


spacing

Use a single space after a period at the end of a sentence.—AP Stylebook.


state names

Use two-letter postal abbreviation in full address with ZIP Code; spell out when it stands alone ("...in Massachusetts...") or in direct quotes.


stepson, etc.


subspecialty


T

24/7


they vs. he or she

Do not use they as a singular pronoun to avoid sexist language. Rewrite your sentences to avoid the problem, or, when all other options have been exhausted, use he or she (he or she is preferable to he/she, s/he, (s)he, and the like.) See section He or she.


time

  • Use this format: 10:00 am to 4:00 pm
  • Do not use periods for am and pm. Also refer to the "times" section in the AP Stylebook.
  • Use "to" between two different times, instead of an em-dash. (NOT: 10:00 am—4:00 pm)
  • Use a single space between the numeral and am or pm
  • If the two times are both am or pm, use as follows: 10 to 11 am, or 1 to 2 pm.

titles

See Composition Titles.


trademarks

Properly mark all trademarks and registered trademarks with ™ and ® the first time you use the trademark in the text (not in a heading). Once the mark is identified, you do not need to identify it as a mark in the rest of the page.


TV (and radio) shows

TV (and radio) shows, but not channels, are italicized: The Today Show. But: the History Channel.


U

Upper Valley

The Upper Valley region includes the following cities and towns in Vermont and New Hampshire, respectively: Ascutney, Bethel, Bradford, Bridgewater, Chelsea, Corinth, Fairlee, Hartford, Quechee, Hartland, Newbury, Norwich, Orange, Plymouth, Pomfret, Royalton, Sharon, Strafford, Thetford, Topsham, Tunbridge, Vershire , West Fairlee, Wells River, White River Junction, Wilder, Windsor, Woodstock; Canaan, Cornish, Croydon, Dorchester , Enfield, Etna, Groton, Grafton , Grantham, Hanover, Haverhill, Lebanon, Lyme, North Haverhill, Orange, Orford, Orfordville, Plainfield, Piermont, Rumney, Warren, Wentworth , West Lebanon, Woodsville.


U.S.


U.S.News & World Report

[italicized and no space between U.S. and News]

If you shorten it, there is a space: U.S. News.


V

Veterans Affairs Medical Center (the VA), the


W

website

  • website (not web site), and lowercase.

X

X-ray

[Always capitalize the "X"]


Y

years

AP Stylebook:

  • Use figures, without commas: 1975.
  • Use commas only with a month and day: Dec. 18, 1994, was a special day.
  • Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries: the 1890s, the 1800s.
  • Years are the lone exception to the general rule in numerals that a figure is not used to start a sentence: 1976 was a very good year.

See also "ages" in the AP Stylebook.


year-round (adj. & adv.)


Z

ZIP Code

0