Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery

Our urogynecologists treat many kinds of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs). These may involve the reproductive, urinary, and lower digestive systems. 

For more information about PFDs see the following sections:

PFD conditions

Common conditions include problems with bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor muscles.

Bladder problems

You may be treated for incontinence, fistulas, or other bladder issues:

  • Urethral cysts or diverticula, which may protrude toward the vagina
  • Urinary incontinence (UI) is a loss of bladder control and can include:
    • Fistulas
    • Mixed urinary incontinence: a combination of different types of UI
    • Neurogenic bladder
    • Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)
    • Urge urinary incontinence (UUI), also called overactive bladder
  • Urinary tract fistulas can be a connection between the:
    • Bladder and the vagina or uterus
    • Urethra and vagina
  • Voiding problems, which may make it difficult to empty the bladder

Bowel problems

Your urogynecologist may treat you for:

  • Bowel tract fistulas: A connection between the bowel and the vagina/uterus
  • Fecal incontinence or accidental bowel leakage: Loss of control of the bowel

Pelvic floor dysfunction

This may cause emptying problems for the bladder, bowel, or sexual dysfunction.

Pelvic support problems and pelvic organ prolapse (POP)

Prolapse is a bulging of tissues into the vagina from surrounding organs. These conditions can include:

  • Apical prolapse: Prolapse of the uterus, cervix, or top of the vagina
  • Cystocele: Prolapse of the bladder into the vagina
  • Enterocele: Hernia of the small intestine into the vagina
  • Rectocele: Prolapse of the rectum into the vagina

Common causes of PFDs

You may experience PFD due to:

  • Aging
  • Chronic conditions that can strain the pelvic floor, like constipation or chronic coughing
  • Connective tissue weakness
  • Genetic factors that run in families
  • Heavy lifting for work
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy and childbirth

PFD tests and treatments

You may have one or more of these tests or treatments to help your condition:

  • Incontinence treatments
    • Fecal incontinence treatments: Treatments for the involuntary or accidental loss of stool or gas
    • Urinary incontinence treatments: Treatments for urinary incontinence, the involuntary loss of urine
  • Fistula treatment: Vaginal, laparoscopic, and abdominal procedures to treat different types of fistulas
  • Mesh complication treatment: Treatments such as estrogen cream, physical therapy, or surgery if needed
  • Pelvic floor muscle exercises: Exercises that strengthen and pelvic floor muscles. These may help with symptoms of incontinence, overactive bladder, and prolapse.
  • Pelvic organ prolapse treatments: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a bulging of tissues into the vagina from surrounding organs. Non-surgical and surgical treatments are available.
  • Pessary: A vaginal device to treat incontinence, overactive bladder, and prolapse
  • Sacral nerve stimulation therapy: A nerve stimulation therapy to treat an overactive bladder
  • Urodynamic testing: Tests that examine how your bladder works when evaluating incontinence

Our team approach guarantees you receive the best care available. We consult with other experts in departments such as: